24. July 2018

So Much in Common and Yet so Different: The Linguistic Boundaries of Modern Europe

Ein Vortrag von Matthias Meyer-Schwarzenberger (Bundesverband Deutscher Volks- und Betriebswirte [bdvb] and Bremen International Graduate School of Social Sciences [BIGSSS]) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 24. Juli 2018
Zeit: 13.30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

Based on my doctoral thesis and subsequent unpublished research, I argue that the boundaries of Modern Europe (across space and time) must be drawn primarily in terms of language. Just prior to the period usually associated with Renaissance humanism, the evolution of many European languages resulted in a unique, unprecedented kind of grammar in which every sentence is organised around an actor-like topic (the so-called subject of a so-called phrase). Interestingly, this arbitrary grammar has no semantic meaning or function in language. According to my analysis, however, it has been vested with a socio-cultural disciplining function instead. Children acquiring a Modern European language implicitly acquire certain beliefs, habits, and rules of conduct with it. This explains why modern social institutions – including both the best and the worst regimes ever known in human history – have been so incredibly efficient in North-Western Europe over the past 300 years. With regard to Eastern Europe and Southern Europe, my analysis raises the question which languages (to what degree) qualify as Modern European and how cultures ‘with’ and ‘without’ modern grammar can be integrated within a common structure such as the European Union.

20. July 2018

IOS Working Papers No. 374 ist erschienen

Bidding against the odds? The impact evaluation of grants for young micro and small firms during the recession, Stjepan Srhoj, Bruno Škrinjarić, and Sonja Radas, 30 S., IOS Working Papers 374, Juli 2018.

Impact evaluations of entrepreneurship policies targeting young firms have been somewhat neglected thus far in the literature. While most research studies focus on the impact of research and development (R&D) grants, a larger percentage of young firms would benefit from grants that assist them in other activities. In this paper we examine the impact of small business development grants on survival and performance of young firms. We study this topic in the context of a long recession in Croatia (2009 to 2014), which makes it possible to better observe the effect of the public instrument intervention. As the grants were too small to produce any direct effects, the positive effects were achieved indirectly, through enabling young firms to get bank loans, either by means of certification effect or because of behavioural additionality which raised their ability to apply for loans. The results show positive impact on firm survival after the recession.

20. July 2018

IOS Working Papers No. 373 ist erschienen

Temporal and Spatial Dependence of Inter-Regional Risk Sharing: Evidence from Russia, Jarko Fidrmuc and Moritz Degler, 31 S., IOS Working Papers 373, Juli 2018.

We present an analysis of interregional consumption risk sharing in Russia between 1999 and 2009 using novel estimation methods. In addition to standard fixed effects panel estimations, we use system and difference GMM estimators to reflect time dynamic properties and possible endogeneity between output and consumption. Furthermore, we apply spatial models that control for spatial dependence across regions. The results show that regional consumption deviations from the national average are highly persistent in time and space. Nevertheless, regional consumption risk sharing in Russia is relatively high with 70 to 90 per cent of idiosyncratic risk being smoothed. Finally, fiscal policy and the degree of financial development appear to contribute to the consumption smoothing.

18. July 2018

Kämpfen gegen die Diktatur: Was bewegt Pro‐Demokratie‐Aktivisten? Eine Analyse am Beispiel der Demokratisierungsbewegung in Serbien (1990 bis 2000)

Ein Vortrag von PD Dr. Sonja Grimm.

Datum: Mittwoch, 18. Juli 2018
Zeit: 16 - 18 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 0.17)

17. July 2018

Self-Employment Can Be Good for Your Health

Ein Vortrag von Milena Nikolova (University of Groningen) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 17. Juli 2018
Zeit: 13.30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

Drawing upon theoretical insights from the Job Demand-Control model, which links occupational characteristics to health, this paper provides the first causal evidence of the physical and mental health consequences of self-employment. Specifically, I utilize German longitudinal data for the period 2002-2014 and difference-in-differences estimations and find that both switches from unemployment to self-employment (necessity entrepreneurship) and transitions from regular employment to self-employment (opportunity entrepreneurship) lead to health enhancements for entrepreneurs with and without employees. Specifically, necessity entrepreneurs experience improvements in mental but not physical health, while opportunity entrepreneurship is associated with both physical and mental health gains, which is in line with the theoretical predictions. Importantly, the health improvements cannot be explained by changes in income or working conditions and are not driven by personality and risk preferences or the local unemployment conditions. The results have implications for entrepreneurship theory and practice, current and would-be entrepreneurs as well as policy-makers.

17. July 2018

Crossing geographical and cultural borders: Russian merchants in 19th century Finland

Ein Vortrag von Maare Paloheimo - Gastwissenschaftlerin im IOS.
Datum: Dienstag, 17. Juli 2018
Zeit: 11 – 12:30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

The lecture sheds light to the position and rights of Russian immigrants especially in relation to Finnish business life in the first part of the 19th century. Russians were the largest minority in Finland after 1809, when Finland was annexed to Russia as an autonomous polity. The minority remained in independent Finland (1917) but the Russian merchant communities practically disintegrated. The lecture describes the shifts in policy on the Russian-born population and with the help of a case study, it shows how Swedish law, retained in Finland after 1809, curtailed the economic and political rights of non-natives and non-Lutherans. The theme of the lecture is closely linked to the present-day situation and ongoing political and economic debates as it contributes to the discussion on minority positions in a small, ethnically, culturally and religiously homogenous society.

12. July 2018

Nach dem industriellen (Alb-)Traum: Erfahrungen, Erinnerungen und Erwartungen der (De-)Industrialisierung in Südosteuropa im Vergleich

Internationale Tagung, veranstaltet von Babeş-Bolyayi-Universität Cluj und Leibniz-Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung, Regensburg. In Kooperation mit der Graduiertenschule für Ost- und Südosteuropastudien (München/Regensburg).
Organisiert von Rudolf Gräf und Ulf Brunnbauer
Datum: 12.-13. Juli 2018
Ort: Reşiţa/Reschitz

11. July 2018

The role of eco-nationalism in the establishment of Ukrainian Green activists’ first international contacts in late perestroika period

Ein Vortrag von Gastwissenschaftlerin Tetiana Perga (Institute of World History of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine).
Datum: 11. Juli 2018
Zeit: 11 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

The discourse on the problems of eco-nationalism has developed over several decades now, but still it has many white spots. The influence of eco-nationalism on the mobilization of members of Western societies, especially representatives of the Ukrainian diaspora in late perestroika period, has not yet been investigated. The presentation will determine the features and potential of eco-nationalism that motivated Western activists to support this movement and attempt to establish contacts with Ukrainian Greens; identify key factors contributing to the growing communication between citizens of the East and West; analyze main channels of face-to-face communication created in the Ukrainian SSR by perestroika and the Chernobyl accident. Attention will be paid to the diaspora’s role in the building of transnational green networks and the integration of Ukrainian groups into them. The author will compare the activities of the Ukrainian diaspora in North America and Germany and try to find reasons for the significant difference in the behavior of the two communities.

10. July 2018

The Behavioral and Psychological Consequences of a Nuclear Catastrophe. The Case of Chernobyl

Ein Vortrag von Natalia Danzer (Ifo Institute)  im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 10. Juli 2018
Zeit: 13.30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109) 

In modern economics, preferences are the unmoved movers of economic and social behavior. They are taken as given such that all social phenomena need to be explained by changes in beliefs or constraints. The assumption of given preferences constitutes however merely a convenient assumption that is not supported by evidence. Here, we examine the impact of radiation fallout after the nuclear catastrophe on the preferences and beliefs of the Ukrainian population. As the geographical distribution of radiation is essentially randomly determined by local and regional weather conditions, the radiation fallout after the catastrophe in Chernobyl constitutes a natural experiment. We find that people who were subjects to higher radiation after the catastrophe display stronger risk aversion and a higher discounting of future returns. They save less, are much less inclined to support democratic political institutions and market economies, and they engage less in political and civic activities. Because we exclude the people in the vicinity of Chernobyl from our sample, the radiation fallout "consumed" by our sample population is very low – comparable to the exposure of an average individual during one year in a non-contaminated environment. It is therefore highly unlikely that the direct health consequences of radiation fall out affect people's economic and political preferences. It rather seems that the impact is purely psychologically mediated and due to the pervasive uncertainty or fear stemming from the imagined future consequences associated with physically unnoticeable and unseizable radiation fall-out.

9. July 2018

Erste Monographie von Cindy Wittke erschienen

Im renommierten britischen Verlag Cambridge University Press ist die erste Monographie von Cindy Wittke, Leiterin der Nachwuchsgruppe "Frozen and Unfrozen Conflicts", erschienen. In "Law in the Twilight" untersucht die Rechts- und Politikwissenschaftlerin die Rolle internationaler Akteure in der Verhandlung und Umsetzung von Friedensabkommen zur Beilegung komplexer inner- und zwischenstaatlicher Konflikte seit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges. Ein besonderes Augenmerk liegt auf dem Engagement des Sicherheitsrates der Vereinten Nationen. Mehr auf www.cambridge.org/9781108424462

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