4. Februar 2020
Vorträge

The Role of Changing Language Skills for Trade

Ein Vortrag von Michael Rindler (IOS Regensburg) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 4. Februar 2020
Zeit: 13.30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

I study the effects of changing language skills on manufacturing trade in a gravity framework. I have constructed a unique panel dataset on native and spoken languages for 32 - mainly European - countries
that spans from the mid-1990s to the early 2010s. While the literature has seen language as a constant variable, the data shows large and relatively fast changes in language
skills, especially in Eastern Europe. The time-varying data structure allows me to control for an endogeneity bias by using country-pair-fixed-effects.
Furthermore, I control for political variables and migration. Results show that an increase in common spoken language significantly increases trade.


21. Januar 2020
Vorträge

Does Status Really Matter? Administrative Reform in Yugoslavia 1955–1971

Ein Vortrag von Martin Hoffstadt (Leibniz Universität Hannover) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 21. Januar 2020
Zeit: 13.30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

We assess the evolution of the communal system in socialist Yugoslavia in order to address the question whether the merger of communes led to economies of scale. In contrast to previous research that has assessed the outcome of subnational border reforms at the aggregation-level of post-merger municipalities, we make use of settlement-level data on employment and ethnicity. This approach allows us to analyse 1,430 administrative towns as winners and losers, relative to administrative towns of unreformed communes. Our first results indicate that the number of administrative workers was reduced considerably in communes that were part of merger reforms. Furthermore, we find that the reduction of administrative workers did occur only in administrative towns that lost their status to other administrative towns, while the number of administrative workers in the winning administrative towns remained unchanged. Finally, this effect appears to be more severe when mergers occur across ethnic borders.


14. Januar 2020
Vorträge

Does weather sharpen income inequality in Russia?

Ein Vortrag von Olga Popova (IOS Regensburg) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 14. Januar 2020
Zeit: 13.30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

This is the first paper that examines how the intensity of extreme weather events affects income inequality. Using subnational panel data from Russia, we account for both single and consecutive extremely hot and cold days. The results suggest that consecutive extremely hot days increase income inequality, while single hot days have no impact. The impact of consecutive hot days is uneven between rich and poor regions. A detailed exploration of labor market channels behind the effects suggests that extremely hot temperature increases inequality through reducing the employment in private sector industries, increasing the unemployment, and increasing the lower-paid public sector employment. Another source of income inequality is price changes driven by consecutive hot days. Extremely cold days, both single and consecutive, have no impact on income inequality and the labor market. This exacerbates the negative impact of extreme weather events on the economy, since extremely hot days become more frequent, while the number of extremely cold days decreases.


8. Januar 2020
Vorträge

Albaniens jüngste Vergangenheit und Gegenwart: Einblicke in ein noch unbekanntes Land

Vortrag und Gespräch mit Konrad Clewing (IOS) im Rahmen der Reihe Albanien – Nachrichten vom Rand Europas
Albanien ist dank der Schönheit seiner Landschaften auf dem Weg, eine „normale“ Reisedestination zu werden und dadurch zunehmend „bekannt“. Von den rasanten Veränderungen seiner Gesellschaft in den 30 Jahren seit dem Ende der sehr speziellen sozialistischen Diktatur macht man sich aber meist keinen Begriff. Um Albaniens Zeitgeschichte geht es daher an diesem Abend.
Der im Innern einst eisern gegen Andersdenkende und die Religionen durchgreifende Staat brach wenige Jahre nach dem Ende der Diktatur zunächst fast zusammen. Korruption, innenpolitische Polarisierung und organisierte Kriminalität belasten ihn auch in seiner jetzigen stabilisierten Phase. Die früher total isolierte Gesellschaft hat sich aber durch Nicht-Diktatur und Urbanisierung, Migration und demographischen wie ökonomischen Wandel grundlegend verändert und sowohl verwestlicht wie „mediterranisiert“. Dass Albanien, das schon 2009 Mitgliedsland der Nato wurde, immer noch nicht mit der EU über einen Beitritt verhandeln darf, hat daher auf dem Stand von heute mindestens so viel mit populistischen Zügen der französischen Politik unter Emanuel Macron zu tun wie mit den albanischen Verhältnissen selbst.
Datum: 8. Januar 2020
Zeit: 19 Uhr
Ort: Evangelisches Bildungswerk Regensburg e.V., Am Ölberg 2, 93047 Regensburg


3. Dezember 2019
Vorträge

Institutional quality and environmental goods preservation

Ein Vortrag von Vladimir Otrachshenko (IOS Regensburg) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 3. Dezember 2019
Zeit: 13.30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

This paper examines how the perception of institutional quality by the Russian citizens affects the willingness to pay for the preservation of environmental goods and services. The motivation is drawn from an environmental preservation problem involving the natural unique landscape at risk in Russia. Using the uniquely collected data from the field experiment, we elicit the willingness to pay for the preservation of the unique glass beach in the Far East of Russia. For this purpose, we apply for stated preference technique. In order to capture the perceived institutional quality, we also collected the answers to a set of follow-up attitudinal questions, addressing different reasons related to lack of trust in institutions, fairness issues with respect to the distribution of the burden of preservation, acceptance the vehicle of payment, and preservation for future generation. Our findings suggest that citizens are willing to pay for the preservation of environmental goods and services in Russia to preserve them for future generations. Another finding is that institutional mistrust and poor local governance are the main obstacles for citizens’ willingness to pay.


26. November 2019
Vorträge

The Role of Institutions in Contributing to Innovativeness in Russia

Ein Vortrag von James Okrah (Ural Federal University) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 26. November 2019
Zeit: 13.30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

Institutions play an important role in creating the essential environment for business activities to thrive in a nation. We examine the contribution of selected institutional factors - the rule of law, corruption and top-level management years of experience - on the level of innovativeness in Russia. The study employs the logit model to analyze data from the World Bank's Enterprise Surveys, primarily SMCs in Russia enterprises distributed across a broad range of industries in both the manufacturing and service sectors. The study draws on the Upper Echelon theory as a theoretical framework for the econometric analysis. Implications are discussed.


11. November 2019
Vorträge

1989 Through the Darkened Lens of the Present

Vortrag: Thomas Carothers; Diskussion: Jan C. Behrends, Ulf Brunnbauer, Gwendolyn Sasse
Mehr Informationen hier.
Datum: 11. November 2019
Zeit: 18.30 Uhr
Ort: Zentrum für Osteuropa- und internationale Studien (ZOiS), Mohrenstr. 60, 10117 Berlin
Plakat


29. Oktober 2019
Vorträge

Digital Democracy in Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine: Forms and Effects on Policy-Making

Ein Vortrag von Dmytro Khutkyy (Center for Advanced Internet Studies, Bochum) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 29. Oktober 2019
Zeit: 13.30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

In recent years, numerous e-participation opportunities for enhancing e-democracy have emerged. Yet their scope and impact vary across countries. To identify the most effective forms of digital democracy, this inquiry reviews the performance of observed e-democracy initiatives in Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova, based on expert interviews, content analysis of online cases, and related self-reported statistics. The studied countries demonstrate a wide spectrum of e-democracy forms, tools, their usage rates, and influences on policy making. Belarus has the fewest e-participation opportunities and practices, Moldova has more tools but little e-participation, while Ukraine has a more functional version of digital democracy in terms of numbers of available e-participation formats, instruments, their usage rates, and impact on public policy.


22. Oktober 2019
Vorträge

Conflict and Health – Evidence from Ukraine

Ein Vortrag von Maksym Obrizan (Kyiv School of Economics) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 22. Oktober 2019
Zeit: 13.30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

Violent conflicts, which intensified in recent years around the world, lead to considerable human and economic losses. In 2014, after 23 peaceful years since gaining independence, Ukraine suddenly became involved into a violent conflict of a major scale which already resulted in 13,000 people being killed (including more than 3,000 civilians), up to 30,000 individuals being injured and more than 1.5 million inhabitants of Donetsk and Luhansk regions being displaced. At the same time, many researchers argue that the burden of the conflict on population health may be much higher. Our study estimates the effect of violent conflict on population health in Ukraine using aggregate statistics on newly reported diagnoses using a unique dataset collected directly from 20 out of 25 Ukrainian regions. Specifically, we requested and processed medical statistics from a balanced sample of 474 administrative districts (cities and counties) before the conflict start in 2012-2013 and in the middle of the conflict in 2015-2016. Using difference-in-difference approach we analyze changes in the newly reported cases in Donbas after the conflict start relative to other regions of Ukraine before and during the conflict. After controlling for socio-demographic and economic characteristics of regions, we identify modest but statistically significant increase in the number of newly reported diagnoses in Donbas after the conflict start. The results are consistent with our previous work showing that directly affected regions of Donbas bear the highest cost of the conflict compared to other (even adjacent) regions.


15. Oktober 2019
Vorträge

Closing the Non-Bank Microfinance sector: Does it Have Any Impact?

Ein Vortrag von Nargiza Alimukhamedova (Westminster International University [Tashkent] and Prague School of Economics) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 15. Oktober 2019
Zeit: 13.30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

Most impact evaluations of microfinance institutions (MFIs) focus on measuring the impact of introducing new microfinance programs on various business and household development indicators. In contrast, empirical evidence on measuring the reverse effect, i.e. what might occur if microfinance institutions exit an economy, is scarce. The lack of evidence is mainly due to the difficulty in implementing a special experimental study and the insufficiency of reliable data for robust measures of the impact. Measuring the consequences of closing the MFI sector gives rise to an important policy agenda, as the loss due to terminating MFI activities may be devastating and may far outweigh the positive effects of introducing a new MFI. In this project, we aim to provide a novel contribution to the literature by characterizing the effect of the 2011 closure of the entire non-bank MFI sector in Uzbekistan. Specifically, in October 2011, the Central Bank of Uzbekistan revoked the license of all credit unions (121) and some of 34 microcredit organizations. We develop a multi-dimensional approach for measuring the impact of sector closure on socio-economic outcomes and various beneficiaries.


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