10. Juli 2019
Vorträge

Social self-management in Yugoslavia: perspectives of the sub-municipal officials and enthusiasts in the 1970s and 1980s

Ein Vortrag von Igor Duda (Pula) - Gastwissenschaftler im IOS.
Datum: Mittwoch, 10. Juli 2019
Zeit: 15 - 16:30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)


2. Juli 2019
Vorträge

The role of conflict in sex discrimination: The case of missing girls

Ein Vortrag von Astghik Mavisakalyan (Curtin University Perth, Australia) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 2. Juli 2019
Zeit: 13.30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

The role of ethnic intergroup conflict has been scarcely studied in the literature on ”missing girls” and son preference. We argue that the threat of war between two groups can be perceived as a menace for group survival, where societal preference for male births is reinforced at the individual level based on gender biased perceptions about group- defenders. We use ceasefire violations in the Nagorno Karabakh conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan as a natural experiment to explain preferences for sons in Armenia, which has one of the world’s highest sex ratios at birth, achieved through sex-selective abortions. Using census data from Armenian municipalities in a difference-in-differences analysis, we show that in the period of intense ceasefire violations the sex ratios at birth increased in the municipalities closer to the conflict epicenter in Nagorno Karabakh. We investigate the underlying mechanism based on household survey data and show that fear of war is associated with son preference.


25. Juni 2019
Vorträge

Order Matters: Standardize and Interact or Interact and Standardize?

Ein Vortrag von Miriam Frey (Universität Bayreuth) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 25. Juni 2019 (Beginn 14:00 Uhr!)
Zeit: 14.00 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

Interaction terms play an important role in empirical economic research. At the same time, standardization is often applied to make results comparable. Using both raises the question of the correct order, namely should one interact the standardized variables or standardize the interacted variables? Replicating prominent and highly cited papers, we show that both approaches potentially lead to substantially diferent results and explore the reasons for that. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to strengthen the awareness of empirical esearchers for this issue in order to avoid unsuitable interpretations of standardized coefcients when using interaction terms.


18. Juni 2019
Vorträge

Säkularität als Herausforderung: Religion, Nation und Moderne bei den Muslimen Bosniens seit 1878

Ein Vortrag von Wolfgang Höpken (Universität Leipzig).
Datum: Dienstag, 18. Juni 2019
Zeit: 16-18 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 017)
Plakat

Die jüngere (nach-osmanische) Geschichte der bosnischen Muslime lässt sich als eine permanente Herausforderung mit dem Prinzip der Säkularität lesen. Unter den Bedingungen einer 'imperialen Moderne' in der Zeit der Zugehörigkeit Bosniens zu Österreich-Ungarn, einer 'sozialistischen Moderne' in der Zeit des sozialistischen Jugoslawien wie auch unter den gegenwärtigen Bedingungen einer 'globalen Moderne' im unabhängigen Bosnien sahen sich die dortigen Muslime damit konfrontiert, die normativen und wertebasierten Prinzipien des Säkularismus in ihr von der Religion (mit-)geprägtes Alltagsleben zu integrieren. Der Vortrag will diesen Prozess von 'challenge and response', von Anpassung, Adaption und Widerstand, mit dem die bosnischen Muslime diese Herausforderung zu bewältigen suchten, für die drei genannten Zeitschinen beschreiben und in den Kontext grundsätzlicher Fragen des Verhältnisses von Religion, Säkularität und Moderne stellen.


18. Juni 2019
Vorträge

Air Pollution and Migration – exploiting a natural experiment from the Czech Republic

Der Vortrag muss leider ausfallen!

Ein Vortrag von Mariola Pytlikova (CERGE-EI Prague) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 18. Juni 2019
Zeit: 13.30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

This paper examines causal effects of air pollution on migration flows by exploiting a natural experiment of rapid desulfurization of power plants in the region of Northern Bohemia in the Czech Republic in the years following the fall of communism in 1989. Our preliminary findings from a difference in differences estimator show a significant positive effect of sulfur dioxide concentrations on emigration. All the above results are validated in analyses using net immigration rates: we find negative effects of air pollution on net migration. The results are also supported by zero effects from placebo tests. Our preliminary results thus suggest that air pollution as measured by concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the air pushes away people from the highly polluted areas. In the future, we would like to include analyses of heterogonous responses to air pollution by different characteristics of people, for instance by their educational attainment, by age and gender.


12. Juni 2019
Vorträge

Can machista culture explain low female activity in Mediterranean and South-Eastern Europe countries?

Ein Vortrag von Nikica Mojsoska Blazevski (University American College Skopje) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 12. Juni 2019 (Beginn: 11:30 Uhr!)
Zeit: 11:30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

Female participation in the labour market is crucial for the economic and social development of a country. Indeed, many studies show that economically active females have an important role in reducing poverty by assuring welfare of the households, also showing large GDP losses due to gender gaps in activity and self-employment. In addition, female participation in the labour market is also important for women’s relative position in the society and economy compared to men, as well as for their economic empowerment (Patimo et al, 2015).
The aim of this research is to investigate the determinants of the female participation in the labour market. While the paper takes into consideration the traditional literature and the common factors used in other studies, it also involves a novel approach by introducing the effect of the overall cultural context in a country on women’s decision whether to supply her labour on the market. The latter is a major contribution of the paper to the current knowledge. The methodology is based on previous research by Contreras and Plaza (2010) which constructs a so-called Machista cultural context index. Moreover, the paper involves a comparative study of two groups of countries which appear to be peers in some cultural aspects, but also in the relatively low female activity. Those are the South-East Europe (SEE) and Mediterranean countries. The findings show that the cultural context, i.e. Machista, is an important determinant of the females’ labour market activity which is important in designing government support and policies for promoting females’ activity.


6. Juni 2019
Vorträge

Die Energie-Herausforderungen der Ukraine: nationale und internationale Kontexte

Ein Vortrag von Olga Degtiareva (Nationale Wirtschaftsuniversität Odessa, Odessa-Fellow am IOS).
Datum: Donnerstag, 6. Juni 2019
Zeit: 10 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)
Plakat

Heutzutage spielt Energie eine wesentliche Rolle in allen Gesellschaften. Für die Ukraine ist die Energiefrage besonders wichtig, da sie energiepolitisch immer noch von Russland abhängt, veraltete Reaktoren vom Netz gehen und dazu die ukrainische Industrie sehr energieintensiv ist. Deshalb steht die Ukraine vor großen Herausforderungen, was die Erhöhung der Energieeffizienz, Energiesicherheit und Energieeinsparung sowie die Effektivität des Energiemarkts betrifft.


4. Juni 2019
Vorträge

“Belt and Road”: The “China Dream”?

Ein Vortrag von Oleksandr Shepotylo (Aston University Birmingham) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 4. Juni 2019
Zeit: 13.30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

This paper explores the impact of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), in terms of changes to trade costs and investment, on trade and consumer welfare in China, the EU and the rest of the World. We look at how these welfare changes compare to the gains from signing shallow and deep FTAs with the EU, as well as analyzing the interplay of the BRI with  mega trade deals (TTIP and TPP) and evaluating the dynamics of the welfare changes over time. We employ a structural gravity approach, where the production side is modeled using mobile capital flows in the form of physical capital and FDI. Our results indicate substantial gains from the BRI for China and the EU where a 30 percent reduction in transportation costs between China and the EU would increase the welfare of a representative consumer in China by 1.51 percent and the EU by 0.97 percent. On the other hand, we find that signing and implementing an FTA between China and the EU is equivalent to transport cost reductions of approximately 45 percent.  Whereas, combining the BRI with a deep FTA would increase welfare by 4.90 and 2.94 percent, respectively. The potential negative effect of the TPP on China is more than compensated by the BRI initiative, and Chinese investment would further increase welfare of the countries participating in this project.


28. Mai 2019
Vorträge

The Emergency – British detention camps and the origins of distrust in Kenya

Ein Vortrag von Tobias Korn (Universität Hannover) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 28. Mai 2019
Zeit: 13.30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

This study examines the long-run effects of British detention camps in colonial Kenya on contemporary economic well-being and trust. During the dawn of colonial rule in Kenya, the British Empire was confronted with a violent uprising to which it responded with far-reaching measures, in effect suspecting anyone sharing the ethnicity of the so-called Mau Mau movement, and incarcerating a significant share of the native population. Exploiting geographic and individual characteristics to identify the affected individuals and households, we show that individuals exposed to detention camps have worse development outcomes today. We use rich contemporary survey data to document that affected individuals tend to be less trusting, accumulate less wealth, and are less literate, even though their ethnic kin belong to the ruling class of independent Kenya.


21. Mai 2019
Vorträge

Political Cycles in Media Harassment

Ein Vortrag von Nikita Zakharov (Universität Freiburg i.Br.) im Rahmen der Seminarreihe des AB Ökonomie am IOS.
Datum: 21. Mai 2019
Zeit: 13.30 Uhr
Ort: Leibniz-Institut für Ost-und Südosteuropaforschung (IOS), Landshuter Str. 4 (Raum 109)

This paper explores the political economy of media harassment in Russia. We use a unique monthly dataset on the incidents of media harassment in Russian cities between 2004 and 2017 to establish real political cycles driven by local elections. We find that harassment incidents are 54% more likely to occur during the two months before a local election - a period that coincides with the official period of the electoral campaign. The effect differs with respect to the type of local election: more important elections produce bigger cycles.


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